Phytophthora megakarya. Molecular and morphological identification of Phyt...

The black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya

On the other end, several genome assemblies had high repeat content, namely, P. megakarya, Phytophthora hibernalis, and Phytophthora pinifolia contained 32.94, 32.46, and 33.00%, respectively. Fig. 1. Analysis of 31 Phytophthora species shows an abundance of repetitive elements. Species are shown in phylogenetic clade order; clade designations ...Phytophthora megakarya Brasier & Griffin, is one of the Oomycete pathogens reported on Theobroma cacao, and it is the most virulent of the Phytophthora species that causes black pod disease. Phytophthora megakarya was first reported as the causal agent of black pod disease in 1979 after the reclassification of PhytophthoraMany Phytophthora species have a soil borne phase in their natural life cycles even though disease expression often occurs on aerial plant parts. In Cameroon, black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), is caused by P. megakarya. Primary inoculum of2020年12月31日 ... Background: Phytophthora megakarya is an invasive pathogen endemic to Central and West Africa. This species causes the most devastating form ...Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important disease on cacao globally.While P. palmivora is a cosmopolitan pathogen, P. megakarya, which is more aggressive on cacao than P. palmivora, has been reported only in West and …Black pod disease caused by P. Palmivora and P. megakarya is an important disease affecting cacao in West Africa which produces 70% of the world output. Resistance to the pathogen is therefore, an important factor to be considered when breeding for high yielding and earliness in fruiting. Resistance to the pathogen using Leaf Disc Test (LDT) was conducted at the Plant Pathology Laboratory ...Comparative Assessment of the Resistance of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Progenies from SNK10 x SNK413; ICS84 x ICS95 to Phytophthora megakarya in Cameroon by ...DOI: 10.1016/J.CROPRO.2003.09.010 Corpus ID: 71098484; Impact of removing diseased pods on cocoa black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya and on cocoa pr @article{NdoumbNkeng2004ImpactOR, title={Impact of removing diseased pods on cocoa black pod caused by Phytophthora megakarya and on cocoa pr}, author={M. Ndoumb{\`e}-Nkeng and Christian Cilas and E. Nyemb and Salomon Nyass{\'e} and Daniel ...Phytophthora species are highly destructive plant pathogens and pose a significant threat to plants in various ecosystems, including agriculture, forest plantations, and natural environments. In sub-Saharan Africa, a total of 77 Phytophthora species have been identified and this review aims to provide an overview of the species diversity and progress of Phytophthora research in this region.Sep 9, 2018 · megakarya which is the most aggressive in the country (80% losses). This study was aimed at dete rmining the clonal resistance of six cocoa clones (IMC67, SCA12, TAFO79/501, TAFO79/467 ICS40 ... P. palmivora differs from P. megakarya morphologically in that it has narrow, medium length sporangial pedicels and spherical, narrow-stalk oogonia compared to the broad, short, …Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms. Genome Biol Evol. 9(3): 536 – 557. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx021 , [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar] Anderson RG, Deb D, Fedkenheuer K, McDowell JM. 2015.Phytophthora megakarya (Q16976160) From Wikidata. Jump to navigation Jump to search. species of fungus. edit. Language Label Description Also known as; English: Phytophthora megakarya. species of fungus. Statements. instance of. taxon. 0 references. short name. P. megakarya (English) 0 references.Disease progression. To study the responses of a resistant and a susceptible cacao genotypes to inoculation with Phytophthora megakarya zoospores, young plants were spray inoculated with zoospores or with distilled water as a control. Our strategy was to capture gene expression profiles in the very early stages of infection, to identify disease …In Cameroon, Phytophthora megakarya is the causal agent of black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). Primary inoculum of P. megakarya is located in the soil. With the onset of the rainy season ...Phytophthora megakarya is the most virulent Phytophthora species reported on cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa. Previous studies have shown that it disperses mainly through rain splash from soil ...In Cameroon, black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya is one of the most economically destructive diseases of cocoa. Hybridation is a reliable method of ameliorating cocoa production.Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta.Molecular and morphological identification of Phytophthora species based on the types and other well-authenticated specimens. IDphy was developed to facilitate accurate and efficient identification of Phytophthora to species, using type specimens from the original descriptions for reference wherever possible.IDphy emphasizes species of high …Phytophthora megakarya is an increasingly important invasive pathogen of cocoa in West Africa, where it forms part of the black-pod disease complex together with the more widespread, but less aggressive, P. palmivora.Its purported centre of diversity, based on evidence from molecular studies and mating types, lies on the Cameroon-Nigeria border, from where it has spread throughout both ...Feb 14, 2017 · Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg ... P. megakarya (Brasier & Griffin) di . Afrika Barat (Brasier & Griffin, ... Phytophthora nicotianae was a predominant species from pineapple but also found in cabbage, chilli, and chrysanthemum. ...oomycete named Phytophthora megakarya known as the very aggressive between the Phytophthora species can reduce the production by 80 or 100% of the total production if n measure is taken. Many ...The assessment of paralogs and orthologs within and between the genomes of P. palmivora (this study and public strain SBR112.9), as well as P. megakarya strain ZDHO120 and P. sojae V3.0 (strain P6497) was done using the module GenomesAligner from NGSEP v3.3.2 (Tello et al. 2019b), by which pairwise alignments of complete genomes are performed ...Download scientific diagram | Spatial distribution of Phytophthora megakarya infections (2009-2016) in a cacao plantation in Kédia, established in 2006 from publication: Combining field ...Background Pathogens of the genus Phytophthora are the etiological agents of many devastating diseases in several high-value crops and forestry species such as potato, tomato, cocoa, and oak, among many others. Phytophthora betacei is a recently described species that causes late blight almost exclusively in tree tomatoes, and it is …megakarya and P. citrophthora, which cause similar diseases with slightly varying symptoms. Worldwide, P. palmivora is one of the most serious pathogens on ...Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by DifferentMechanisms Shahin S. Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J. Lary, Brent A. Kronmiller, Danyu Shen, Mary D. Strem, Ishmael Amoako-Attah, Andrew Yaw Akrofi, B.2022年12月2日 ... Phytophthora megakarya, a Causal Agent of. Black Pod Rot in Africa. In: Bailey, B., Meinhardt, L. (eds) Cacao Diseases. Springer, Cham. • ...The species is listed as an alternative host for Phytophthora palmivora and P. megakarya in Ghana, both causing the black seed pod disease in cocoa trees (Opoku et al., 2002). Although there was no evidence of an increase of infection on the cocoa trees near the F. elastica trees, the authors suggest that further studies are needed to assess ...Phytophthora megakarya —one of the cocoa black pod disease species, is invasive and probably responsible for the greatest cocoa crop loss in Africa Phytophthora multivora —discovered in analysis of isolates with P. cinnamomi dieback infections of tuart forests of Southwest Australia, which were previously diagnosed as P. citricola.Many Phytophthora species such as P. megakarya have a soil-borne phase in their natural life cycles even though disease expression often occurs on aerial plant parts such as cocoa seedling black pod disease . Cocoa seedling produ[3] c-tion is a key step in the establishment of new cocoa plantations and generallyPhytophthora megakarya, on the other hand, occurs only in Africa, but represents a major threat to cacao production, the countries of West Africa being the largest producers of cacao in the world ...Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) occurs only in the countries of West and Central Africa and repre-sents a relatively new disease. Pmeg is the most virulent spe-On-farm farmer managed trials to control black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya in Ghana. Proceedings of the First International Cocoa Pests and Disease Seminar [Internet]. 1995 :pp. 109-118. ... Phytophthora quercetorum sp. nov., a novel species isolated from eastern and north-central USA oak forest soils. Mycological Research ...In Cameroon, Phytophthora megakarya is the causal agent of black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). Primary inoculum of P. megakarya is located in the soil. With the onset of the rainy season ...TO PHYTOPHTHORA MEGAKARYA, IN THE CENTRAL PROVINCE OF CAMEROON SUMMARY Black pod rot of cocoa is a disease that causes significant losses, in the region of 50% of total production in CameroonPhytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important …Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao …Development of necrosis length on leaves and phytochemical characteristics of cocoa genotypes. The reaction of 19 cocoa genotypes (16 hybrids and three parents) to P. megakarya is presented in Table 1.Significant differences (P < 0.05) in lesion size were observed in all the genotypes 2, 4, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) (Fig. 1). 6 dai, smaller necrotic lesions were observed for partial ...Phytophthora megakarya, the causative agent of cacao black pod disease in West African countries causes an extensive loss of yield. In this study we have analyzed 4 libraries of ESTs derived from ...Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya are the causes of the most prevalent fungal diseases of cocoa in Ghana and are differentially spread in the country's six cocoa-growing regions (Western, Brong …P. palmivora differs from P. megakarya morphologically in that it has narrow, medium length sporangial pedicels and spherical, narrow-stalk oogonia compared to the broad, short, and occluded sporangial pedicels and the pyriform, downward tapering oogonia of P. megakarya (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996). P. quercetorum, also in clade 4, is homothallic in culture (Balci et al., 2008) while P. palmivora ...Diversity of Phytophthora megakarya in Central and West Africa revealed by isozyme and RAPD markersAlthough several Phytophthora species can infect cacao plants, only a few are considered important because of the extensive damage that they cause. In cacao plants, black pod is caused by four species of the genus Phytophthora: P. palmivora, P. megakarya, P. citrophthora and P. capsici/P. tropicalis .Phytophthora megakarya has spread westwards from Cameroon through Nigeria and Togo, to the major cocoa producing countries of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, and southwards to Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Phytophthora megakarya has become the main yield-limiting factor in cocoa production in the sub region, rapidly surpassing P. palmivora.(From Brasier and Griffin, 1979).P. megakarya is a member of Group II of Phytophthora, as defined by Stamps et al. (1990).It produces caducous papillate sporangia, is heterothallic and antheridia are amphigynous.Sporangia are limoniform, obpyriform or ellipsoid with rounded bases, varying from 20-60 x 13-41 µm, with a length-breadth ratio of 1.2-1.6, and are formed in a sympodium.Identification of Theobroma cacao genes differentially expressed during Phytophthora megakarya infectionNov 17, 2021 · Black pod disease of cocoa in West Africa, caused almost exclusively by P. megakarya, still remains one of the most serious constraints on cocoa production. Surveys during the 1978 and 1979 harvest season in Togo revealed losses of up to 80%, when no control measures were taken (Djiekpor et al., 1981). Erwin and Ribeiro (1996) estimated a 20-30 ... Nana et al. (2015) estimated the MIC of clove EO on Phytophthora megakarya at 250 μL/L on solid medium. For P. parasitica, the highest anti-oomycete activity was highlighted for clove EO with ...Phytophthora kernoviae—pathogen of beech and rhododendron, also occurring on other trees and shrub species including oaks, and holm oak. Distribution is confined to the UK. Phytophthora megakarya—one of the species causing black pod of cacoa, and is probably responsible for the greatest cocoa crop loss in Africa.Phytophthora megakarya thrives in very humid climates. Although soil texture plays a central role in the epidemiology of some Phytophthora species (Corcobado et al., 2013), there is a dearth of infor-IDphy was developed to facilitate accurate and efficient identification of Phytophthora to species, using type specimens from the original descriptions for reference wherever possible. IDphy emphasizes species of high economic impact and species of regulatory concern for the U.S. IDphy includes molecular and morphological tools to aid in ...Seed extracts were tested for inhibition of P. megakarya, a causal agent of black pod disease of Theobroma cacao. Four strains of P. megakarya (BOK 11; BOYO; TA121 and TA123) were used.Certificate of Analysis Download To download a certificate of analysis for Phytophthora megakarya Brasier et Griffin (46728), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip.The study aims to test the effectiveness of some biological agents to attack of Phytophthora palmivora. The experiment was conducted in 2015 in the village of Andomesinggo, Southeast Sulawesi.De acuerdo con [43], la aspersión de ácido fosfónico (H 3 PO 3 40 %) proporcionó un control de P. megakarya equivalente al de la recomendación estándar para el control de la ppm en Ghana ...Sep 14, 2021 · Phytophthora pod rot disease commonly known as the Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora and P. megakarya is the most destructive cocoa disease worldwide accounting for over 30% pod yield loss through pod rot and 10% tree death . Phytophthora megakarya is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in west and central Africa. This pathogen can cause detrimental loss of yield in the economically important cocoa industry, worth approximately $70 billion annually. It can damage any part of the tree, causing total yield losses which can easily ...Feb 1, 2002 · There was a significant genetic correlation between pod rot rate in the field and leaf test data, so using this resistance test could shorten cocoa tree selection cycles. Cocoa pod rot, caused by different Phytophthora species, is rife in all production zones. Phytophthora spp. control is therefore a major challenge for world cocoa cultivation, and selection of resistant material is a priority ... Recent research demonstrates that the number of virulent phytopathogenic fungi continually grows, which leads to significant economic losses worldwide. Various procedures are currently available for the rapid detection and control of phytopathogenic fungi. Since 1940, chemical and synthetic fungicides were typically used to control ...Phosphonic Acid: an Alternative Approach to the Control of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa Caused by Phytophthora Megakarya; Phytophthora Palmivora Establishes Tissue-Specific Intracellular Infection Structures in the Earliest Divergent Land Plant Lineage; Effect of Storage on the Antimicrobial Potencies of Some Botanicals Against Phytophthora ...Phytophthora megakarya in nurseries. The results showed that heat-treated oyster shells powder at 1% (w/w) soil amendment significantly increased plant height, leaf number, leaf area, dry shoot and root weight more than chemical fungicide and control treatment after twelve weeks of growth. ThePhytophthora megakarya isolate used in this study was obtained from the microorganism bank of the Laboratory of Phytoprotection and Plant Valorization (LPPV) of the Biotechnology Centre of the University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon. Zoospore suspensions of P. megakarya isolate PM5 were obtained as described previously .. In this study, three cacao plots devoid of primary inoculum of PhytophThe effects of some selected arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM A phylogenetic tree generated for 119 Phytophthora isolates, based on the 60S ribosomal protein L10 gene and rDNA sequence, verified the PCR-based identification assay and showed high interspecific variation among the species causing black pod. Phytophthora megakarya isolates were uniformly virulent in an assay using susceptible cacao pod husksPhytophthora (Fy-TOFF-thor-uh) species make up a group of microorganisms that are important plant pathogens. The name Phytophthora derives from Greek and literally means "plant destroyer." Phytophthora species resemble fungi but are not. While they are most closely related to aquatic organisms, such as brown algae and diatoms, they can also exist on land. However, Phytophthora organisms ... 1.. IntroductionBlack pod disease is a major Microorganisms' origins. P. megakarya (strain PM 5) used in this study was obtained from infected cacao pod (Yaounde-Cameroon) (Tchameni Citation 2014).The zoospore suspension was obtained according to the method used by Sameza et al. (Citation 2014).Zoospore concentration was adjusted to 10 6 · ml −1 using a hemocytometer for spore counts.. Four isolates of Trichoderma asperellum (PR10 ... Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) c...

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